AI Grammars

about

Old Irish

is the oldest attested Goidelic language. The oldest surviving texts are the oldest Ogham inscriptions and glosses in Latin manuscripts (see introduction). The language has a rich consonant inventory with fricatives alternating in a systematic fashion with plosives (see sounds). The language is famous for its massive allomorphy, especially in the verbal system, and its word-initial mutations (see words). Old Irish is a VSO language with a complex system of relative clause formation. It makes broad use of so-called emphatic particles to mark various discourse functions (see structures).

Lecturers

Aaron Griffith

University of Utrecht

David Stifter

Maynooth University

introduction

Old Irish, intro, unit 1

SGA-INT-001

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49233

history of the Irish language: Irish as a Celtic Language, history of Irish

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Old Irish, intro, unit 2

SGA-INT-002

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49234

writing in Ireland: writing, Ogam, Latin alphabet, manuscripts

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Old Irish, intro, unit 3

SGA-INT-003

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49235

influence and handbooks: language contact, secondary literature

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sounds

Old Irish, sounds, unit 1

SGA-PHO-001

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49236

phonemes: consonants, vowels and diphthongs

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Old Irish, sounds, unit 2

SGA-PHO-002

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49237

spelling: overview, consonants, vowels, marking of palatalisation

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Old Irish, sounds, unit 3

SGA-PHO-003

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49238

morphophonemics: stress, mutations, palatalisation, metaphony, syncope

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words

Old Irish, words, unit 1

SGA-MOR-001

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49239

general morphological introduction, nominal inflection and formation

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Old Irish, words, unit 2

SGA-MOR-002

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49240

verbal complex: elements of the verb complex, verb-avoidance strategies

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Old Irish, words, unit 3

SGA-MOR-003

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49241

verbal categories and dimensions, verbal paradigms

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Old Irish, words, unit 4

SGA-MOR-004

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49242

verbal stem: suffixal formation, root modifications, new verbs

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structures

Old Irish, structures, unit 1

SGA-STR-001

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49244

typological profile, head-marking: how to use pronouns, text examples: Táin bó Froích

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Old Irish, structures, unit 2

SGA-STR-002

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49246

word classes: structure of noun clauses, prepositional phrases, text examples: Táin bó Froích

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Old Irish, structures, unit 3

SGA-STR-003

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49248

verbs and verb phrases: finite vs non-finite, alignment, roles, voice and valency, text examples: Táin bó Froích

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Old Irish, structures, unit 4

SGA-STR-004

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49250

negation, tense, aspect, modality, verbal avoidance strategies, clause structure; text sample: Táin bó Froích

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texts

Old Irish, texts, unit 1

SGA-TXT-001

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49243

warm up:
Ad·tlochur indithim dúib!

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Old Irish, texts, unit 2

SGA-TXT-002

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49245

Táin bó Froích
(41–43, 61–62, 64–65, 68–70)

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Old Irish, texts, unit 3

SGA-TXT-003

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49247

Táin bó Froích
(136-145)

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Old Irish, texts, unit 4

SGA-TXT-004

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49249

Táin bó Froích
(204-205, 237-250)

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sources

selection out of the lecturers’ references, enriched by Florian Fischer and project members


general

general introductions, encyclopedias, literature, writing, history, miscellaneous


Fortson, Benjamin W. 2010. Indo-European Language and Culture: an Introduction (2nd ed.). Chichester: Blackwell Wiley. (Chapter on Anatolian pp. 170-201)
Mallory, James P. 2017. The Origins of the Irish. London: Thames & Hudson.
McManus, Damian. 1991. A Guide to Ogam. Maynooth: An Sagart.
Pedersen, Holger. 1909–1913. Vergleichende Grammatik des Keltischen. 2 Vols. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Russell, Paul. 2008. What was best of every language: the early history of the Irish language. In Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí (ed.), A New History of Ireland. Vol 1. Prehistoric and Early Ireland. Oxford University Press, 405‒450.
University College Cork: Department of Early and Medieval Irish. 2021. Celtic Digital Initiative (CDI). University College Cork: Department of Early and Medieval Irish. (Accessed 2021-07-07.)
Ziegler, Sabine. 1994. Die Sprache der altirischen Ogam-Inschriften. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.


grammar

grammars, treatments of major grammatical domains


Pedersen, Holger. 1909–13. Vergleichende Grammatik des Keltischen. 2 Vols. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Stifter, David. 2006. Sengoídelc: Old Irish for Beginners. Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press.
Stifter, David. 2009. Early Irish. In Ball, Martin & Müller, Nicole (eds.), The Celtic Languages (2nd edn.). Abingdon: Routledge.
Thurneysen, Rudolf. 1946. A Grammar of Old Irish. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Ziegler, Sabine. 1994. Die Sprache der altirischen Ogam-Inschriften. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.


lexicon

dictionaries, headword search tools, further sources of information about the lexicon


Kavanagh, Séamus. 2001. A Lexicon of the Old Irish Glosses in the Würzburg Manuscript of the Epistles of St. Paul. Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press.
Toner, Gregory (ed.). 2007. Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language. eDIL. Queen’s University Belfast. (Accessed 2021-07-07.)
University College Dublin. 2006-2011. Thesaurus Linguae Hibernicae (TLH). (Accessed 2021-07-07.)
Vendryes, Joseph. 1959. Lexique étymologique de l’irlandais ancien. Paris, Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.


text

text collections, corpora, treebanks


Gippert, Jost & Martinez, Javier & Korn, Agnes. TITUS TEXTUS INDEX: Old and Middle Irish. TITUS: Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien. (Accessed 2021-07-07.)
Griffith, Aaron. 2013. Milan Glosses Database. University of Vienna. (Accessed 2021-07-07.)
University College Cork. 1997-2021. CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts. . (Accessed 2021-07-07.)
University of Oxford. 2020. Digital Bodleian. (Accessed: 2021-07-07.)


teaching material

coursebooks, exercises, materials or introductions supporting teaching


de Bernado Stempel, Patrizia & Slocum, Jonathan. 2006-2007. Early Indo-European Online: Old Irish Online. University of Texas: Linguistics Research Centre. (Accessed 2021-07-07.)
Quin, Ernest G. 1975. Old-Irish Workbook. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy.