AI Grammars

about

Hittite

was discovered in the early 20th century and revolutionized our view of Proto-Indo-European (see introduction). Like the other Anatolian languages, it differs substantially from the core IE languages. It has two series of plosives whose exact nature is still a matter of debate. Phonotactics, too, is disputed, as the highly defective cuneiform writing is far from unequivocal. Hittite preserves two of the laryngeals reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European, albeit merged into one (see sounds). The language lacks a feminine gender. Its case system is rich, while its verbal morphology is strikingly simple compared to that of other ancient IE languages. The most noteworthy feature of the verbal system is the distinction between the so-called mi- and hi-conjugation (see words). Hittite is strictly SOV with a complex template of second position clitics. Remarkably for an early IE language, it shows split ergative alignment (see structures).

Lecturers

Silvia Luraghi

University of Pavia

Guglielmo Inglese

KU Leuven

introduction

Hittite, intro, unit 1

HIT-INT-001

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49526

language, speakers and sources: Hittite, Anatolian and Indo-European, periodization and main sources

slides

Hittite, intro, unit 2

HIT-INT-002

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49523

writing system, decipherment: the cuneiform syllabary, origin, decipherment, writing systems

slides

sounds

Hittite, sounds, unit 1

HIT-PHO-001

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49522

segments:
inventory, vowels, stops, fricatives, affricates, sonorants

slides

Hittite, sounds, unit 2

HIT-PHO-002

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49521

phonological processes:
changes affecting vowels and consonants

slides

Hittite, sounds, unit 3

HIT-PHO-003

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49520

suprasegmental:
syllable structure, accent and prosody, clitics

slides

words

Hittite, words, unit 1

HIT-MOR-001

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49519

introduction and word formation: morphological type, word classes, word formation processes, derivation, compounding

slides

Hittite, words, unit 2

HIT-MOR-002

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49518

nominal inflection:
nominal categories, nominal and adjectival inflection, inflectional classes, inflection of pronouns

slides

Hittite, words, unit 3

HIT-MOR-003

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49515

verbal inflection:
verbal categories, inflectional classes, verbal inflection, stem formation, non-finite forms of the verb

slides

structures

Hittite, structures, unit 1

HIT-STR-001

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49525

noun phrase:
marking dependencies, agreement, possessive noun phrases, order

slides

Hittite, structures, unit 2

HIT-STR-002

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49524

case, grammatical relations and semantic roles: alignment, relations, roles, the free-standing genitive

slides

Hittite, structures, unit 3

HIT-STR-003

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49516

tense, aspect, modality:
use of tenses, aspect and actionality, mood and modality

slides

Hittite, structures, unit 4

HIT-STR-004

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49517

valency changing strategies: verbal voice, causative suffixation, periphrastic passive, the ‘reflexive’ particle =za, reciprocals

slides

Hittite, structures, unit 5

HIT-STR-005

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49514

word order and discourse structure: word order typology, initial verbs, nominal constituents, sentence connectives, discourse structure

slides

Hittite, structures, unit 6

HIT-STR-006

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5446/49513

complex sentences and subordination: direct questions, subordination, complement clauses, adverbial clauses, relative clauses

slides